Category Archives: Measures

Positive and Negative Affectivity

Construct: Positive and Negative Affectivity

Source: Scollon, C., Diener, E., Oishi, S., Biswas-Diener, R. (2005). An experience sampling and cross-cultural investigation of the relation between pleasant and unpleasant affect, Cognition & Emotion, 19, 27-52.

Description: A brief, 8 item scale with good repeated measures properties; uses common language terms and has been cross-culturally validated. Builds on several previous scales from Diener’s research program.


Positive and Negative Affectivity (PANAS)

Construct: Positive and Negative Affectivity

Source: Watson, D., Clark. L. A., & Tellegen,A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. 20 items to measure both positive and negative affect.

Used in: Erez, Amir; Misangyi, Vilmos F.; Johnson, Diane E.; LePine, Marcie A.; Halverson, Kent C. 2008. Stirring the hearts of followers: Charismatic leadership as the transferal of affect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3):602-616. Cronbach’s alphas= positive (.85), negative (.75). Measured affect both pre and post task and found no correlation between either pre (.02) or post (-.02) task positive and negative affect

Abbreviated Version: An abbreviated version of the PANAS, created specifically for experience-sampling studies (i.e., ecological momentary assessments), is used in Study 2 of: Dalal, R. S., Lam, H., Weiss, H. M., Welch, E., & Hulin, C. L. (2009). A within-person approach to work behavior and performance: Concurrent and lagged citizenship-counterproductivity associations, and dynamic relationships with affect and overall job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 1051-1066.


Measure: Emotional labor

Construct: Emotional labor

Sources: Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2003). Development and validation of the emotional labour scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 365- 379. 

Brotheridge, C. M. & Lee, R. T. (2002). Testing a conservation of resources model of the dynamics of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 57-67.

Measure: Team Conflict

Construct: Team conflict — Task conflict, relationship conflict, process conflict

Sources: Jehn, K. A., & Mannix, E. A. (2001). The dynamic nature of conflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 238-251.

Jehn, K. A. (1995). A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 256-282.