Category Archives: Measures

Measure: Work Ethic

Work Ethic

Miller, M. J., Woehr, D.J., & Hudspeth, N.   (2002).  The meaning and measurement of work ethic: Construction and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 451- 489.

Meriac, J. P., Woehr, D. J., Gorman, C. A., & Thomas, A. (2013). Development and Validation of a Short Form for the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile.  Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82, 155-164.


Construct: – Voice
Reference: – Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. 1998. Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1): 108-119.
Link to article: –


Construct: – Promotive and Prohibitive Voice
Reference: – Liang, J., C. Farh, C. I., & Farh, J.-L. 2012. Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1): 71-92.
Link to article: –


Multi-dimensional measures:

Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA)
original: Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Martinussen, M. 2003. A new rating scale for adult resilience: what are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12(2): 65–76.
Adapted version (33 items, 5 dimensions):
Friborg, O., Barlaug, D., Martinussen, M., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Hjemdal, O. 2005. Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 14(1): 29–42.

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)
original (25 items, 5 dimensions): Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. 2003. Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2): 76–82.

10-item shorter version:
Campbell-Sills, L., & Stein, M. B. 2007. Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6): 1019–1028.

2-item shorter version:
Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. T. 2007. An abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatry Research, 152(2–3): 293–297.

Uni-dimensional measures:

Brief Resilience Scale    6 items
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., et al. 2008. The Brief Resilience Scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3): 194–200.

Brief Resilient Coping Scale    4 items
Sinclair, V. G., & Wallston, K. A. 2004. The development and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Assessment, 11(1): 94 –101.


Windle, G., Bennett, K. M., & Noyes, J. 2011. A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9(1): 1–18.

Ahern, N. R., Kiehl, E. M., Lou Sole, M., & Byers, J. 2006. A review of instruments measuring resilience. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 29(2): 103–125.

Gambling attitudes, motives, and behavior

Construct: gambling cognition, gambling behavior, gambling motive, motivation, gambling attitude, fate and luck, negative consequence, technique, superstition, impaired control

Reference: Wu, A. M. S., Tao, V. Y. K., Tong, Kwok-kit, & Cheung, S. F. (2012). Psychometric evaluation of inventory of Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviors (GMAB) among Chinese gamblers. International Gambling Studies, 12, 331–347


Additional notes: URL links to original survey and description in both Chinese and English