Tag Archives: Personality


Multi-dimensional measures:

Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA)
original: Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Martinussen, M. 2003. A new rating scale for adult resilience: what are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12(2): 65–76.
Adapted version (33 items, 5 dimensions):
Friborg, O., Barlaug, D., Martinussen, M., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Hjemdal, O. 2005. Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 14(1): 29–42.

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)
original (25 items, 5 dimensions): Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. 2003. Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2): 76–82.

10-item shorter version:
Campbell-Sills, L., & Stein, M. B. 2007. Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6): 1019–1028.

2-item shorter version:
Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. T. 2007. An abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatry Research, 152(2–3): 293–297.

Uni-dimensional measures:

Brief Resilience Scale    6 items
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., et al. 2008. The Brief Resilience Scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3): 194–200.

Brief Resilient Coping Scale    4 items
Sinclair, V. G., & Wallston, K. A. 2004. The development and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Assessment, 11(1): 94 –101.


Windle, G., Bennett, K. M., & Noyes, J. 2011. A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9(1): 1–18.

Ahern, N. R., Kiehl, E. M., Lou Sole, M., & Byers, J. 2006. A review of instruments measuring resilience. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 29(2): 103–125.


Construct: Self-Monitoring

Source 1: Snyder, M. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 526–537. 25 items to determine the level of self-monitoring.


Source 2: Used in Oh, Hongseok; Kilduff, Martin. (2008). The ripple effect of personality on social structure: Self-monitoring origins of network brokerage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93:5, 1155-1164.

DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.1155

Locus of Control

Construct: Locus of Control

Source 1: Ghorpade, J., Hattrup, K., & Lackritz, J. R. (1999). The use of personality measures in cross-cultural research: A test of three personality scales across two countries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 670–679. Scale validated across cultures to determine internal or external locus of control

DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.84.5.670

Source 2: Used in Ozer, Muammer. (2008). Personal and task-related moderators of leader-member exchange among software developers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93:5, 1174-1182.

Cronbach’s alpha=.83.

DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.1174.

Organizational Machiavellianism

Construct: Organizational Machiavellianism

Source: Kessler, S.R., Bandelli, A.C., Spector, P.E., Borman, W.C., Nelson, C.E., & Penney, L.M. (in press). Reexamining Machiavelli: A three dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Took excerpts from Machiavelli’s The Prince to create a scale of Machiavellianism in an Organization

DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00643.x

Psychological Collectivism

Construct: Psychological Collectivism

Source: Jackson, C. L., Colquitt, J. A., Wesson, M. J, & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2006). Psychological Collectivism: A measurement validation and linkage to group member performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 884-899. 5 item

This is an individual-difference form of Collectivism or idiocentrism/allocentrism.

DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.884

Person-Organization Fit

Source 1: Bretz, R. B., & Judge, T. A. (1994). Person-organization fit and the theory of work adjustment: Implications for satisfaction, tenure, and career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44, 32-54. 3 items.

DOI: 10.1006/jvbe.1994.1003


Source 2: Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person-organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 294-311. Followed job seekers through interview process then 6 months later. 15 items.

DOI: 10.1006/obhd.1996.0081



DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb01790.x